All Oculus Quest developers MUST PASS the concept review prior to gaining publishing access to the Quest Store and additional resources. Submit a concept document for review as early in your Quest application development cycle as possible. For additional information and context, please see Submitting Your App to the Oculus Quest Store.
Data Usage Disclaimer: Enabling support for Hand tracking grants your app access to certain user data, such as the user’s estimated hand size and hand pose data. This data is only permitted to be used for enabling hand tracking within your app and is expressly forbidden for any other purpose.
The hand tracking feature enables the use of hands as an input method on Oculus Quest devices. It delivers a new sense of presence, enhances social engagement, and delivers more natural interactions with fully tracked hands and articulated fingers.
Hand tracking complements the Touch controllers and is not intended to replace controllers in all scenarios, especially with games or creative tools that require a high degree of precision.
Using simple hand gestures such as pinch, unpinch, and pinch and hold, you can integrate hands to perform interactions such as select, click, scroll, drag and drop, return, or exit. The hand tracking feature allows you to develop UI elements that can be operated with hands and controllers interchangeably. When you opt to use hands, the hand’s pose drives a laser cursor-pointer that behaves like the standard controller cursor. Use the cursor-pointer to highlight, select, click, or write your own app-level event logic.
Check out the Hand Tracking Design resources that detail guidelines for using hands in virtual reality, along with the OC6 Video Presentation: Hand Tracking Deep Dive: Technology, Design, and Experiences.
Apps render hands in the same manner as any other input devices. The following sections help you get started with rendering hands in your app:
Note: We support the use of hand tracking on PC through the Unity Editor, when using Oculus Quest + Oculus Link. This functionality is only supported in the Unity Editor to help improve iteration time for Oculus Quest developers.
Open a new project or scene to get started.
The OVRCameraRig is the root prefab. To set up a scene, from the Oculus/VR/Prefabs folder, drag the OVRCameraRig prefab in the Hierarchy window.
You can use the sample scene, HandTest, to check the default settings and see how hands render in an app. Open this scene and build it.
Before you can use hands as input devices, you must enable permissions in the AndroidManifest.xml file. In addition to setting permissions in the manifest file, the user must enable hand tracking on their Oculus Quest to use the feature in apps that implement it.
Note: This is a project-wide setting that applies to the entire app.
The following steps sets permissions in the AndroidManifest.xml file:
Under OVR Manager (script), in the Input section, select Controllers and Hands from the Hand Tracking Support list.
If the Input section is unavailable, it’s because Android is not the current platform. To change the platform, go to File > Build Settings, select the Android icon, and then click Switch Platform.
Options available are:
"oculus.software.handtracking"entry with the permission set to
android:required=”false”. By opting-in to hand support, your app also needs to satisfy additional technical requirements specific to hand tracking to be accepted on the Oculus store.
"oculus.software.handtracking"entry with the permission set to
android:required=”true”. Currently, this option is available for developer experimentation, but it is not currently accepted during submission on Oculus Store.
AndroidManifest.xml code snippet
<uses-permission android:name="com.oculus.permission.HAND_TRACKING" /> <uses-feature android:name="oculus.software.handtracking" android:required="false" />
Note: For Unity 2017.4.x, follow the above steps, and then, go to Oculus > Tools > Create store-compatible AndroidManifest.xml. This extra step generates the AndroidManifest.xml file with the currently configured hand tracking permissions. Repeat this step to generate a new AndroidManifest.xml if this setting is changed.
Users must enable the hand tracking feature on their Oculus Quest to use their hands in a virtual environment.
To use hands as input device, you need to manually add them in your scene. Hands are implemented with the OVRHandPrefab prefab.
From the Oculus/VR/Prefabs folder, drag the OVRHandPrefab prefab under each hand anchor, LeftHandAnchor and RightHandAnchor. These hand anchors are available under OVRCameraRig > TrackingSpace in the Hierarchy window.
Under OVRHand, OVRSkeleton, and OVRMesh, select the appropriate hand type, Hand Left or Hand Right for the current hand anchor.
Once OVRHandPrefab is added to each hand anchor and configured with the appropriate handedness setting, you can start using hands as input devices. There are several advanced level settings you should consider that affect natural interaction in the app. For more information about these settings, go to Configuring OVRHandPrefab.
There are several advanced level settings that influence how hands render and interact with objects in app.
The following sections walks through these settings:
OVR Mesh Renderer renders hands by combining data returned by OVR Skeleton and OVR Mesh.
OVR Skeleton exposes data such as the skeleton bind pose, bone hierarchy, and capsule collider data.
In the Skeleton Type list, select the hand for which you are retrieving the data. For example, hand left.
OVR Mesh handles loading a specified 3D asset from the Oculus runtime and exposing it as a UnityEngine.Mesh. The mesh is configured with attributes such as vertices, uvs, normals, and bone weights.
In the Mesh Type list, select the hand for which you are retrieving the data. For example, hand left.
OVR Mesh Renderer combines the data returned by OVR Skeleton and OVR Mesh to generate the animated 3D model of hands.
Ensure the OVR Mesh Renderer checkbox is selected.
When the OVRHandPrefab is parented to the left or right hand anchors in the OVRCameraRig, leave the Update Root Pose checkbox unchecked so that the hand anchors can correctly position the hands in the tracking space.
If you choose to use OVRHandPrefab independently of OVRCameraRig, select the Update Root Pose checkbox to ensure that not only the fingers and bones, but the actual root of the hand is correctly updated.
You can get an estimation of the user’s hand size via uniform scale against the reference hand model. By default, the reference hand model is scaled to 100% (1.0). By enabling scaling, the hand model size is scaled either up or down based on the user’s actual hand size. The hand scale may change at any time and we recommend that you should scale the hand for rendering and interaction at runtime.
Note: To use the default reference hand size, leave the checkbox unchecked.
Add physics capsules that represent the volume of the bones in the hand. Use this feature to trigger interactions with physical objects and generate collision events with other rigid bodies in the physics system.
You can render the bones of the hand with wireframe lines to assist with visual debugging. Use this feature to debug the hand visually during development.
To change the visual appearance of the default hand model, provide a customized skin material. For more information on how to create a new material, go to Creating and using materials in the Unity developer guide.
Use your own customized mesh to render hands of your choice. This is performed by mapping your custom skeleton that is driven by our skeleton. For more information on sample usage, refer to the
HandTest_Custom scene, which uses the new
OVRCustomHandPrefab_R prefabs, as well as the new
Once you’ve configured OVRHandPrefab settings, hands start rendering in your app. This section walks you through several scripts and APIs that help you build an immersive and interactive app by integrating hands in app:
OVRSkeleton.cs contains a full list of bone IDs, which uniquely identify each bone of the skeleton. Use bone IDs to devise app-level interaction, such as detecting gestures, calculating gesture confidence, targeting a particular bone, or triggering collision events in the physics system.
Invalid = -1 Hand_Start = 0 Hand_WristRoot = Hand_Start + 0 // root frame of the hand, where the wrist is located Hand_ForearmStub = Hand_Start + 1 // frame for user's forearm Hand_Thumb0 = Hand_Start + 2 // thumb trapezium bone Hand_Thumb1 = Hand_Start + 3 // thumb metacarpal bone Hand_Thumb2 = Hand_Start + 4 // thumb proximal phalange bone Hand_Thumb3 = Hand_Start + 5 // thumb distal phalange bone Hand_Index1 = Hand_Start + 6 // index proximal phalange bone Hand_Index2 = Hand_Start + 7 // index intermediate phalange bone Hand_Index3 = Hand_Start + 8 // index distal phalange bone Hand_Middle1 = Hand_Start + 9 // middle proximal phalange bone Hand_Middle2 = Hand_Start + 10 // middle intermediate phalange bone Hand_Middle3 = Hand_Start + 11 // middle distal phalange bone Hand_Ring1 = Hand_Start + 12 // ring proximal phalange bone Hand_Ring2 = Hand_Start + 13 // ring intermediate phalange bone Hand_Ring3 = Hand_Start + 14 // ring distal phalange bone Hand_Pinky0 = Hand_Start + 15 // pinky metacarpal bone Hand_Pinky1 = Hand_Start + 16 // pinky proximal phalange bone Hand_Pinky2 = Hand_Start + 17 // pinky intermediate phalange bone Hand_Pinky3 = Hand_Start + 18 // pinky distal phalange bone Hand_MaxSkinnable= Hand_Start + 19 // Bone tips are position only. They are not used for skinning but are useful for hit-testing. // NOTE: Hand_ThumbTip == Hand_MaxSkinnable since the extended tips need to be contiguous Hand_ThumbTip = Hand_Start + Hand_MaxSkinnable + 0 // tip of the thumb Hand_IndexTip = Hand_Start + Hand_MaxSkinnable + 1 // tip of the index finger Hand_MiddleTip = Hand_Start + Hand_MaxSkinnable + 2 // tip of the middle finger Hand_RingTip = Hand_Start + Hand_MaxSkinnable + 3 // tip of the ring finger Hand_PinkyTip = Hand_Start + Hand_MaxSkinnable + 4 // tip of the pinky Hand_End = Hand_Start + Hand_MaxSkinnable + 5 Max = Hand_End + 0
OVRSkeleton.cs provides methods that retrieve the current skeleton’s start bone ID, the end bone ID, and the number of total bones.
GetCurrentEndBoneId()methods to retrieve the start and end Bone IDs, which are mainly used to iterate over the subset of bone IDs present in the currently configured skeleton type.
GetCurrentNumSkinnableBones()methods to return the total number of bones in the skeleton and the total number of bones that are skinnable. The difference between Bones and SkinnableBones is that Bones also include anchors for the fingertips. However, they are not actually part of the hand skeleton in terms of the mesh or animation, whereas the skinnable bones have the tips filtered out.
In order to standardize interactions across various apps, the hand tracking API exposes a filtered pointer pose and detection for pinch gestures. Simple apps that only require point and click interactions can use the pointer pose to treat hands as a simple pointing device, with the pinch gesture acting as the click action.
OVRHand.cs provides access to the pointer pose and pinches to ensure your app conforms to the same interaction models as Oculus system applications. The following sections walks you through several functions that you can perform on hands:
At any point, your app logic may want to check if your app detects hands. OVRHand.cs provides the
IsTracked property to verify whether hands are currently visible and otherwise not occluded from being tracked by the device. It also provides the
HandConfidence property that indicates the level of confidence the tracking system has for the overall hand pose. The property returns the confidence level as
HandConfidence values, either
You can use
HandConfidence values in your app logic to control hand rendering. For example, forego rendering hands if the confidence level is low. We recommended to only use hand pose data for rendering and interactions when
Retrieve the scale of the user’s hand, which is relative to the default hand model scale of 1.0.
HandScaleproperty, which returns a floating point value that indicates the current user’s hand scale compared to the reference hand size.
For example, the value of 1.05 would indicate the user’s hand size is 5% larger than the reference hand. The value may change at any time and apps should use the value to scale the hand for rendering and interaction simulation at runtime.
Pinch is the basic interaction primitive for UI interactions using hands. A successful pinch of the index finger can be considered the same as a normal select or trigger action for a controller, i.e., the action that activates a button or other control on a UI.
To detect whether the finger is currently pinching and to check the pinch’s strength, call the
GetFingerPinchStrength() methods from OVRHand.cs. Pass the relevant finger constant defined in the
HandFinger enum for the finger that you want to query. The finger constants are:
var hand = GetComponent<OVRHand>(); bool isIndexFingerPinching = hand.GetFingerIsPinching(HandFinger.Index); float ringFingerPinchStrength = hand.GetFingerPinchStrength(HandFinger.Ring);
The progression of a pinch gesture is indicated by the returned float value. For each finger pinch, the corresponding value ranges from 0 to 1, where 0 indicates no pinch and 1 indicates full pinch with the finger touching the thumb.
In addition to the pinch strength, OVRHand.cs also provides the
GetFingerConfidence() method to measure the confidence level of the finger pose. It’s measured in terms of low or high, which indicates the amount of confidence that the tracking system has for the finger pose.
GetFingerConfidence()method and pass the finger constant for which you want to track the confidence level.
var hand = GetComponent<OVRHand>(); TrackingConfidence confidence = hand.GetFingerConfidence(HandFinger.Index);
Deriving a stable pointing direction from a tracked hand is a non-trivial task involving filtering, gesture detection, and other factors. OVRHand.cs provides a pointer pose so that pointing interactions can be consistent across apps. It indicates the starting point and position of the pointing ray in the tracking space. We recommend that you use
PointerPose to determine the direction the user is pointing in the case of UI interactions.
PointerPoseproperty from OVRHand.cs.
The pointer pose may or may not be valid, depending on the user’s hand position, tracking status, and other factors. Call the
IsPointerPoseValid property, which returns a boolean indicating whether the pointer pose is valid. If the pointer pose is valid, you can use the ray for UI hit testing. Otherwise, you should avoid using it for rendering the ray.
The system gesture is a reserved gesture that allows users to transition to the Oculus universal menu. This behavior occurs when users place their dominant hand up with an open palm towards the headset and then pinch with their index finger. When the users uses the non-dominant hand to perform the gesture, it triggers the
Button.Start event. You can poll
Button.Start to integrate any action for the button press event in your app logic.
To detect the dominant hand, call the
IsDominantHand property from OVRHand.cs and to check whether the user is performing a system gesture, call the
IsSystemGestureInProgress property from OVRHand.cs. We recommend that if the
IsSystemGestureInProgress property returns
true, the app should provide visual feedback to the user, such as rendering the hand material with a different color or a highlight to indicate to the user that a system gesture is in progress. The app should also suspend any custom gesture processing when the user is in the process of performing a system gesture. This allows apps to avoid triggering a gesture-based event when the user is intending to transition to the Oculus universal menu.
The following questions help you troubleshoot issues you may encounter during rendering and integrating hands in the app:
Why don’t I see hands in my app?
There can be many reasons why hands are not rendering in your app. To begin with, verify that hand tracking is enabled on the device and that hands are working correctly in the system menus. Check the permissions set in your app’s AndroidManifest.xml file. Ensure that you have used the OVRHandPrefab prefab to add hands in the scene.
Why do I see blurry/faded hands?
Your hands may not be properly tracked since the cameras on the Oculus Quest have a limited field of view. Make sure the hands are closer to the front of the Oculus Quest for better tracking.
Can I use another finger besides the index finger for the pinch gesture?
Yes. Use the
OVRHand.GetFingerIsPinching() method from OVRHand.cs with the finger that you want to track instead. For more information about tracking fingers, go to Integrating pinch.
Hand tracking for Oculus Quest is currently an experimental feature with some limitations. While these limitations may be reduced or even eliminated over time, they are currently part of the expected behavior. For more specific issues, go to the Troubleshooting section.
Tracking may be lost or hand confidence may become low when one hand occludes another. In general, an app should respond to this by fading the hands away.
Hand tracking can exhibit some noise. It may be affected by lighting and environmental conditions. You should take these conditions into consideration when developing algorithms for gesture detection.
Controllers + Hands
Controllers and hands are not currently tracked at the same time. Apps should support either hands or controllers, but not both at the same time.
Hand tracking has different lighting requirements than inside-out (head) tracking. In some situations, this could result in functional differences between head tracking and hand tracking, where one may work while the other has stopped functioning.